T. A. Ginetsinskaya, D. Sc. (Biol.) and Cynthia Martin
HOW TO USE THE TEXTBOOK
First get acquainted with the contents of the textbook. Some words in the text are printed in italics to make it easier to remember zoological terms. If the species of an animal is followed by an exclamation mark ('), it means that this animal is rare and should be protected. On the margins of the book next to the questions and assignments you will see a red question mark (?), or a red triangle A, which means that the questions and assignments are given for review in order to remember the material better. If the assignment is marked by a red square ■, it should be accomplished by observing living animals, making experiments with them, or studying the structure of dissected animals.
Examine carefully the insides of the front and back covers of the textbook, where you will find reference data on zoology. An appendix is given at the end of the textbook, containing brief characteristics of the main phyla and classes of animals, as well as symbolic images of representatives of various classes. You will find the same images on the inside front cover, illustrating schematically the evolutionary trends of the main groups of the animal world. The index of main zoological terms indicates the pages where the terms are used.